By Charles W. Carey Jr.
Sooner than 1901, while the 1st Nobel Prize used to be offered, lots of the state-of-the-art clinical study and thought used to be being performed in Europe, the place a few of the world-class chemists, physicists, and scientific researchers resided. through 2004, americans had received greater than 2 hundred Nobel Prizes within the sciences - greater than the other unmarried country. in the course of that century American scientists, despite their self-discipline, led the way in which in constructing the theories and experiments that experience propelled humankind's wisdom of technology ahead. "American Scientists" presents 250-300 entries at the scientists who've enormously impacted society and the medical neighborhood. each one authoritative access covers the scientist's history details, together with information about the individual's expert profession and accomplishments in the medical global. including to this obtainable reference are additional analyzing lists particular to every access, seventy three pictures, cross-references, a bibliography, a basic index, and topic indexes - one through self-discipline and one via 12 months of start.
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Nobel Prize Winners. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1987, pp. 50–51. Banneker, Benjamin (1731–1806) astronomer Benjamin Banneker was typical of the self-trained scientists of the colonial period. Despite the lack of a formal education, he was able to teach himself astronomy and compute astronomical tables of the highest quality. He also used his astronomical skills to help survey the nation’s capital. Banneker, Benjamin 17 Banneker was born on November 9, 1731, in Oella, Maryland. His parents, Robert and Mary, were farmers.
VARMUS, a UCSF colleague, began studying reverse transcriptase, and in short order they were able to describe the biochemical mechanism via which reverse transcriptase works. This success led Bishop and Varmus to undertake a study of viral RNA and viral DNA in both normal and infected cells, and from there to study viruses as a cause of cancer. Bishop and Varmus focused on Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), a virus that causes cancer in chickens; it was the first virus known to cause cancer in mammals. PEYTON ROUS, its discoverer, had also demonstrated that cancer progresses slowly and by stages, not all of a sudden, and that cancer cells often lie dormant until some agent, like a virus or a chemical, awakens them.
Moreover, they discovered that these genes, which they named proto-oncogenes, do not just lie dormant, but that they also perform their assigned role in regulating cellular functions, just as they did before they were hijacked into the viral genome. Proto-oncogenes trigger the production of cancer cells only after they are mutated by a particular agent, usually another retrovirus or a chemical carcinogen, but until then they function as normal, healthy genes of the organism to which they originally belonged.
American Scientists (American Biographies) by Charles W. Carey Jr.