By Donald Peattie, Paul Landacre, Robert Finch
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3. 44 Foliage Penetration SAR Collection Systems The FOPEN SAR’s low frequency of operation, together with its ﬁne azimuth resolution (wide azimuth beamwidth), required the creation of long synthetic apertures lengths or, equivalently, large integration angles. 1. This variation makes selection of the proper image formation algorithm critical. Whileit is straightforward to compensate range curvature for a given range bin, it is difﬁcult to compensate range curvature for all range bins simultaneously.
The image covers a biological ﬁeld station in Michigan with an array of trees and other cultural objects. The ﬁgure includes some ground truth photographs of the instrumentation and the vehicles used for image characterization. 2 FOPEN SAR Systems 45 FIGURE 2--17 P-3 ultra wideband SAR image characterization © 1996 IEEE  with far range to the right in this image). These sidelobes are due to notching out of strong RFI sources, and, although quite persistent, are still over 30 dB down. The low noise equivalent clutter return is also evident in the open areas .
The attenuation on the targets in foliage is signiﬁcantly less in VHF than UHF, as is the clutter return. However, the targets in the low UHF band image exhibit strong scattering characteristics that were considered as discrimination for target characterization. These two points will be presented in Chapter 3 in more quantitative detail. CARABAS II also participated in the 1997 Keystone collection in Pennsylvania and demonstrated the improvements in performance of the intervening 4 years. The major difference between the two was the change in the antenna to rigid booms and reﬁnement in signal processing.
A Natural History of Trees: of Eastern and Central North America by Donald Peattie, Paul Landacre, Robert Finch